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Religion, Migration and Wealth Creation in the Swaminarayan Movement Rohit Barot

Proposed electronic publication as part of the Digital Shikshapatri Project

Refugee Studies Centre Queen Elizabeth House University of Oxford 21 St. Giles Oxford OX1 3LA shikshapatri@qeh.ox.ac.uk http://www.shikshapatri.org.uk/index.htm

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Religion, Migration and Wealth Creation in the Swaminarayan Movement This study is based on my long-term association with the Swaminarayan movement in Britain and India (Barot 1980). I am grateful to Professor Michael Banton and to my colleague Dr Kieran Flanagan for their constructive criticism of the first draft.

By Rohit Barot

From 'The Transnational Family, New European Frontiers and Global Networks', Berg 2003

Although changes in the traditional nuclear forms of family are widespread in modern European societies, they are not necessarily universal or unilinear. In contrast to narratives on fragmentation and breakdown typically associated with modern family living, this chapter seeks to show how Indians retain an ideology of family in the context of migration in their adopted homes in the diaspora, increasingly forming transnational and globalized networks. One of the key factors that this chapter attempts to highlight is that the family cannot be treated in isolation from other social and cultural institutions.

To explain the relative stability and the persistence of the South Asian family as an institution, it is necessary to examine the family in relation to two different levels of community formation. Although they may conflate in practice, social community based on caste or jati can be distinguished from a religious and sectarian community. Both at the level of caste or jati and at the level of shared faith, group formation is corporate and exerts considerable influence on those who, through their family, are embedded in a community of multiple affiliations.

As the traditional nuclear family has given way to a whole range of different family forms from single parent to gay and lesbian families in European societies, it is useful to outline briefly the meaning that Indians attach to the word 'family'. In Indian languages that derive from Sanskrit, the words kutumb and parivar refer to an extended family consisting of a three-generation residential unit or a joint family typically consisting of a man, his wife and married sons. A nuclear family may be formed by a husband, wife and children sharing a common residence. The most important part of kutumb and parivar is the universe of kinship and affinity that gives a more corporate expression to a caste or jati collectivity. The embodiment of such a social community in a religious organization creates long-lasting social ties. It is the relationship or sabandh or rishta through which families create a community which, due to a shared belief system, leads to both a social and a religious community. This type of group formation is the focus of this chapter.

Such caste and jati-based religious groups described here belong to the Swaminarayan movement. The caste and sectarian groups within this movement have become a part of the social structure of the Gujarat state and of Gujarati communities in their diasporic destinations including those in the UK (Barot 1980). To explain the way in which religious organization has made an impact on both migration and settlement it is necessary to trace the origin of these groups and their transformation into a movement consisting of a number of sectarian communities. The formation of the Swaminarayan sect and its gradual formation into different communities indicate a complex process that marks a social change that is typical of the colonial and post-colonial period. Changes in stratification open up venues for mobility. They also create unease between groups struggling for better opportunities and higher status.

The tension generated in this process shows that evolving stratification systems are in flux and that contested and contradictory expectations are likely to develop in the family, between men and women and between different generations. The distance between parents, children and grandchildren is marked by tension as cultural differences grow between the primary and secondary generations who are experiencing less conventional Indian socialization. When such cultural differences manifest themselves within the family, they can create a communication hiatus and misunderstanding. Such changes can create solidarity for the achievement of goals but they can also create tensions that threaten the unity of the family. Needless to say, most Swaminarayan families contain elements of unity and division over a period of time.

To highlight the significance of social cohesion and divisions in the Swaminarayan movement, it is important to situate its genesis in historical changes. This perspective shows that the initial Swaminarayan community is going through a process of segmentation and change that is common for a transnational religious movement. The migration of individuals and families within the Swaminarayan movement to East and Central Africa, the UK, the US and Canada and their economic success is conceptually related to divisions within the movement.

In terms of this argument, this exposition illustrates that the families in the Swaminarayan movement have deployed their socio-cultural and economic resources to better the quality of their life in Britain where they have settled on a permanent basis. The interface of tradition and modernity is something that these families face as a critical challenge in relation to maintaining their religion, language and culture in their adopted country. This chapter focuses on the diffusion and segmentation process and assesses the impact of modernity and transnationalism on the formation of different Swaminarayan groups. Changes in gender and inter-generational relations are highlighted.

The Historical Origin of the Movement

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Mogul Empire declined as Europeans competed for power and influence in India. From the beginning of the nineteenth century, the British emerged as the dominant power and introduced elements of Westernization to India, creating social change that brought tradition and modernity into a dynamic interrelationship (Srinivas 1966). One particular consequence was the movement of population. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Indians were on the move in the British Empire – a movement that created Indian communities in many parts of the world (Tinker 1974, 1976, 1977, Clarke, Peach and Vertovec 1990).

The economic and political turmoil involved in India's transition from Mogul to British rule created uncertainties and insecurities, providing the backdrop for the development of the Swaminarayan movement. The Vaishnavite tradition of devotional worship, bhakti, had already emerged as a dominant religion amongst Gujarati Hindu merchant groups in Western India. Within this tradition, the Pushtimarg of Vallabhacharya Now also represented among the Gujarati Hindus in Britain. was a well-established sect (Barz 1976). Sociologists and anthropologists often associate the rise of a religious movement with a charismatic leader (Eisenstadt 1968). Hindu tradition is rich with stories of leaders with special qualities that appeal to followers, leading them to take whatever course of action may be prescribed. A traditional belief is that divine beings such as Rama, the hero of the epic Ramayan, or Krishna, a main character in Mahabharat, appear in human form when religious values decline. In the endless struggle between good and evil, it is their mission to restore moral values.

The founder of the Swaminarayan movement, Sahajananda Swami, is often viewed in this way. Scholars such as Williams (1882) have suggested that the Swaminarayan movement developed as a puritanical reaction to moral decline associated with the practices of the Pushtimarg leaders. It is most likely is that people from a wide range of castes were attracted to Sahajananda Swami's puritanical charisma. However, nineteenth-century socio-economic changes created a whole set of new opportunities for groups at the lower end of the caste scale. Their success as landlords, farmers and merchants created social conditions under which they wanted to undergo what the Indian social anthropologist Srinivas (1966: 1–45) describes as 'sanskritization'. Srinivas identified this change as having an ideological element combined with political mobilisation and economic success. In this process, the aspiring lower caste groups emulated the behaviour of Brahmins or other dominant groups. As in other parts of India, in their desire to conform with the dominant groups and their ideology, many lower groups embraced the Swaminarayan movement, which initially ignored ascribed differences between individuals and families from different caste groups.

Sahajananda Swami, a Brahmin from Utter Pradesh, arrived in Gujarat in 1800 (Fuchs 1965, Dave 1974). According to tradition, he completed his ascetic spiritual journeys and began building up a following in Gujarat. Many middle-ranking and lower-ranking groups joined Sahajananda Swami to receive salvation as well as to improve their ritual and social status in local communities.

The sect and its organization expanded rapidly throughout Gujarat. Before his death in 1830, Sahajananda Swami declared that he was the supreme Swaminarayan, the highest deity for his supporters. By then his following had crystallized into a distinctive organization with jurisdiction divided into northern and southern regions at Ahmedabad and Vadtal respectively (Williams 1984). Sahajananda Swami adopted the sons of his two brothers and appointed them as hereditary heads, the acharya of the two regional seats. The acharya headed both the lay members as well as the male renouncers who preached salvation and took little interest in the material affairs of the sect. However, the accumulation of assets and their management, or mismanagement, as some were to allege, created differences resulting in disputes and court cases involving litigation about particular acharyas. In addition, according to the primary tradition of the sect, since Sahjanand Swami had declared himself to be the supreme Swaminarayan, it was this divinity who was the source of ultimate salvation.

A number of leading renouncers began to claim that they also possessed divine charisma and were equally capable of granting final salvation. When these differences surfaced in public, the factions that broke away from the two main seats formed separate sectarian organizations. A unitary sect changed into multiple sects. For the purpose of distinguishing the original sect of Sahajananda Swami, it is useful to identify it as the primary sect and to distinguish the schismatic sects as secondary organizations. Those who follow the primary Swaminarayan sect of Sahajananda Swami view all the breakaway organizations as heretical or vimukh, an expression which literally means 'against the source'. They argue that members of the heretical organizations do not follow the sectarian precepts as laid down by Sahjanand Swami and therefore cannot legitimately use the designation Swaminarayan. However, the sects that have come into existence since their separation from the main body refuse to accept this and offer their own grounds for self-legitimation. The perception of differences between the primary sect and secondary organizations is sharp and forms an important part of sectarian self-consciousness. In an extended interview, a follower of the Ahmedabad-based Swaminarayan sect, Shree Nitinbhai Yagnik, expressed this theme, drawing a clear boundary between the primary and schismatic secondary sects. I am grateful to him for bringing this view to my notice. The identity of each sectarian group has become a highly contested issue.

Segmentation has given rise to a number of different Swaminarayan sects all of which are now represented in Britain. Opposition to the Ahmedabad acharya led to three splits: the Shree Swaminarayan Siddhanta Sajivan Mandal based in Maningar near Ahmedabad, the cult of Abji Bapa based in Kutch, and a dissident acharya who was excluded from hereditary succession and established his own independent seat at in Saurashtra.

The acharya Vadtal also experienced splintering. Swami Yagnapurushdasji separated from the jurisdiction of the acharya in 1906 to establish Shree Akshar Purshottam Sanstha. The affiliation of women to a Swaminarayan sect was usually through the family. Women were expected to live within the sectarian jurisdiction as a consequence of desertion or widowhood. They pursued a path of ascetic devotion and were known as sankhyayoginis. When a layman within Shree Akshar Purshottam Sanstha recruited and initiated women as renouncers, his views were opposed by the established sects. He thus broke away and established the Yogi Divine Society concerned with the spiritual welfare of women. The society further divided along gender lines: Gunatit Jyot was established for women renouncers and the Anoopam Mission was set up to initiate men.

Several renouncers from the Vadtal seat of the primary sect have also branched out on their own. Using the model of traditional Hindu schools called gurukul, they have established their own independent schools for children from Swaminarayan and non-Swaminarayan Hindu families. Although they do not formally identify themselves as a sect, as they have not established their own separate forms of worship and temples, they have a loyal band of followers. They accept the supremacy of Swaminarayan in the tradition of the primary sect.

Migration and Transformation of the Swaminarayan Sect

Sanskritization is frequently linked to changes in the socio-economic positions of groups as demonstrated in Indian anthropological literature. Land ownership, prosperity through cash crops, and the development of trade were sources of wealth creation for established groups. By the midnineteenth century, Gujarati merchants had created trading links with the Gulf and the East African coast, mainly in Zanzibar (Pearson 1976). Besides the seasonal migration of merchants within the Indian Ocean region, male heads of families who found themselves facing poverty and marginality often chose to leave their rural communities for urban settlements like Ahmedabad and Bombay from where they migrated to other areas of the British Empire, particularly East Africa.

Gujaratis who settled in the Indo-Pacific zone from Fiji to East and Central Africa played an important part in the development of colonial economies. Their prosperity supported religious causes and sectarian institutions. In Saurashtra, a renouncer explained to me that the wealth that the East African Gujaratis created went into supporting the sect and building prestigious and magnificent temples in Gujarat and in East Africa. Settlement in East Africa played a vital part in the transnational consolidation of the Swaminarayan movement. As East Africa's Gujarati shopkeepers, buyers of primary produce and wholesalers proliferated and prospered, they formed temple-based sectarian communities. It could be argued that migration and the socio-economic advancement it created was a necessary condition for the elaborate and complex development of Swaminarayan sects within both East Africa and India. This argument is not economic reductionism but rather highlights the fact that economic advancement was necessary for the followers of the Swaminarayan to invest their resources in the religious sphere. The dynamic connection between economic and religious goals has intertwined serving to consolidate both the social and economic organization of sects within the movement.

The story of East African Indian migration to Britain is sufficiently well known in the literature to require no detailed amplification (O'Brien 1972, Tandon 1973, Mamdani 1973, Humphry and Ward 1974, Twaddle 1975, Kuepper, Lackey and Swinerton 1975). However, the framework that takes into account facts of colonization and decolonization and the status of East African Asians as British citizens is crucial for grasping their further migration to the UK. In addition, some of the salient features of colonial stratification show that minorities like Indians were insufficiently integrated into wider British society to legitimate their claims for moral citizenship although they had legal citizenship.

Although the Indians were a part of a colonial three-tiered black, brown and white racial pyramid in which they faced severe racial discrimination at the hands of British colonial officials, they tended to identify more with the dominant white rulers than with the Africans. The colonial stratification and the kind of separation it created between groups failed to provide a basis for multi-ethnic communities to develop in independent Africa (Morris 1968, Dotson and Dotson 1968, Ghai and Ghai 1970). Decolonization in the 1960s created uncertain conditions for Indians who saw that they were going to be unable to protect their privileges based on the colonial social structure. Political changes and the policy of Africanization that gave greater prominence to African aspirations adversely affected Indians. Many began leaving East Africa and followers of Swaminarayan sects came to Britain from this period onwards. As migrants they were not isolated individuals who had decided to settle in the UK. They departed from East Africa as families, relatives and friends with common settlement objectives. Their vision was not merely personal settlement but the settlement of their kin and the re-establishment of their religious organization, only this time in the UK. It should be noted that these families did not see themselves as victims of xenophobia, racism or exclusion in East Africa or the UK. Such a simplistic victim's perspective masks the kind of energy and human resources which families utilise to improve their social and material conditions in an unwelcoming environment. They were intent on turning adverse conditions to their advantage.

In contrast to the single male migration of the 1950s from India and Pakistan, the East African Asian migration generally tended to be family migration. The politics of decolonization demanded that the families leave together, as was particularly the case with the expulsion of the Asians from Uganda in 1972–4. When Swaminarayan families came to Britain in the 1960s and 1970s, a shortage of housing compelled many to live in lodging houses either singly or with other families in the short term. They did not desire public sector housing, even if it had been possible. It would have made it almost impossible for them to recreate their residential sectarian communities. Although private sector housing was never free from discriminatory practices and market constraints, members of various sects were able to recreate quite rapidly residential communities familiar to them from their time in India and East Africa (Modood 1997).

For example the Leva Kanbi Patels of Kutch, with whom the author spent two years in London in the 1970s, lived in their own Swaminarayan neighbourhood. This pattern applies not only to other caste and sectarian communities but also to other Indian groups such as Sikhs who live in close-knit communities ensuring daily face-to-face contact. The lodging house and the system of tenants, which were typical of the early years of settlement, have nearly disappeared and most families now own their own homes.

When they first came to Britain, members of a sect would set up a small Swaminarayan shrine for personal and collective worship. In time, they moved from worshipping in a small room to a terraced house and finally to a large hall or an old church building converted into a temple. Construction of a proper temple in the traditional Indian style is the final step in the consolidation of such religious communities. From the late 1980s, the movement for the construction of temples has gathered pace in Swaminarayan sects. The followers of the primary Swaminarayan sect of Tejendraprasadji funded and supported the construction of a sikharbandhi mandir, a temple with traditional domes in Willsden in 1989. This was an important expression of their sectarian identity in spatial terms. In the 1990s, the followers of Shree Akshar Purshottam Sanstha brought about the most effective and successful mobilization of resources for the construction of a magnificent marble Swaminarayan temple in traditional style in the Neasden district of London. The followers of transnational links embracing Europe, Africa and North America formed a vital factor in creating the resources for this temple, which is one of the most impressive and imposing Hindu temples in the Western hemisphere. The fact that the followers as well as the wider British society view this temple as a Hindu temple (as distinct from a temple of a particular Hindu sect) has important implications for identification and identity.

Census data on the ethnic minority population in Britain only provide statistical information about individuals born in each of the Commonwealth countries. Information about the number of people and the size of a religious community is a matter of informed guesswork. Knott and Toon (1981–4) estimate that there were 307,000 Hindus out of about 840,000 Indians living in Britain in the mid-1980s. Based on the British survey of ethnic minorities, Modood (1997) estimates that there may be nearly 325,000 to 350,000 Hindus living in Britain, the majority of whom are probably Gujarati Hindus. Fifty thousand men, women and children in the Swaminarayan movement is a realistic guess. In the US, Williams (1984) estimates there are 10,000 families or 35,000 people in the Shree Akshar Purshottam Sanstha and 10,000 in the Ahmedabad-based primary Swaminarayan sect. It is possible that there are more than a million Hindus belonging to this dynamic movement in Gujarat in India, the UK and the US.

As Indian migration has spread geographically, the Swaminarayan movement has expanded since the mid-1970s both in the UK as well as in the US.The Ahmedabad and Vadtal-based primary sect has temples in the Streatham, Willesden, Harrow, Woolwich and East Ham areas of London as well as in Bolton, Oldham, Leicester and Cardiff. There are also additional major centres where members assemble every day to pray and meditate. Shree Swaminarayan Siddhanta Sajivan Mandal has its main temple in Golders Green in London and a temple in Bolton. Shree Akshar Purshottam Sanstha has its main temple in Neasden and four additional temples in Leicester, Ashton-under-Lyne, Birmingham, Wellingborough and Preston with many more informal places of worship. The organizers of Gunatit Jyoti and Anoopam Mission are in Denham near Uxbridge. There are at least 15 or 16 Swaminarayan temples representing different sects within the movement. Now there are also extensions in Sweden and Portugal where small numbers of Gujarati Hindus have settled permanently. It is worth noting that now there are more than a million Indian Americans living in the US (Migration News 2000 and Williams 1988). Swaminarayan sects have consciously become globalised by setting up web pages on the Internet and providing up-to-date information for their transnational followers.

Migration and Economic Mobility

The economic and social backgrounds of the followers are varied and their work histories are complex. As migrants, only a small number of businessmen and women and middle-class professionals such as doctors, pharmacists and chartered accountants were successful in recreating their Indian or East African class position in Britain. In their initial entry into the labour market, most had to set aside their white-collar or professional aspirations and accept manual jobs as a temporary stepping stone to selfemployment or a profession. This meant going through a short-term process of proletarianization. Members of the family usually pooled their resources enabling the family to maximize its savings over the years. After investing in a residential property, they usually tried to move out of manual work into self-employment, concentrating on small-scale business enterprises to become self-reliant. This transition to self-employment accorded them a different class position and better material prospects. However, such a transition was by no means universally inevitable as large numbers of men and women had to continue with manual or white-collar salaried employment (Modood 1997). It was common for Gujarati families to suffer exclusion and marginality in the labour market.

One example of a successful upward ascent was the Leva Kanbi Patels, who trace their origin to the Kutch part of Gujarat, and the Patels who come from the Charottar district in central Gujarat. These caste groups belong to different sectarian groups within the Swaminarayan movement (Barot 1987). The Leva Kanbi Patels achieved prosperity through cooperation and hard work based on their traditional occupation in building work and carpentry. They transferred these traditional skills to East Africa and entered the construction world as manual labourers. Gradually they were able to run their own construction firms and in time became successful entrepreneurs – a mark of success that was reflected in further consolidation of their sect, Shree Swaminarayan Siddhanta Sajivan Mandal.

Not surprisingly, after their arrival in Britain, they started working on construction sites. Some were enterprising enough to establish small family firms that specialized in repair work in their own neighbourhoods. A family that I have renamed the Varsani brothers started out as a modest enterprise jointly operated by several brothers. They were highly experienced builders in East Africa before entering the construction industry in Britain in the 1960s. Their poor command of English and their unfamiliarity with construction work in Britain put them at a disadvantage at the outset but they were keen workers and quick to learn new skills. Many were able to use their contacts with the foreman on site to recruit fellow sect members and nurture them until they had acquired the skills and levels of performance that British construction work demanded. Besides their paid work for big companies, the brothers also bought and repaired properties. Once they had accumulated enough capital, they started buying derelict, run-down properties to refurbish and sell in north London's booming property market. They made good profits and established themselves as a large firm by the 1980s. Further success enabled them to move out of the local residential domestic property market and they began to tender for contracts to renovate high-rise apartments and hotels throughout London. When I met the brothers ten years after my initial fieldwork, they confirmed that their business was a multi-millionpound enterprise. The story of their success was a matter of great pride for the entire community, which benefited from their generous donations for various projects of a religious nature. The Varsani brothers are noteworthy but by no means unique. Numerous Gujarati families have become successful in trade, commerce and industry and many are in the Swaminarayan movement.

The Charottar Patels in London also provide a remarkable example of a community that has been able to find a successful niche in shopkeeping, as recently documented by Patel and Rutten (1999) in their study of this community in Gujarat and London. Besides owning retail businesses and corner shops selling newspapers, confectionery, tobacco and groceries, the Patels have also moved into a wide range of well-paid professions. Gujarati Lohana Hindus have also followed a similar pattern throughout north London. Both communities have had close links with Shree Akshar Purshottam Sanstha and their contributions to the temple community have remained a vital part of the prosperity of the transnational sectarian movement.

According to Sikshapatri, a text that Sahajanand Swami compiled to regulate the conduct of his followers, each member of the sect should contribute either a tenth or a twentieth (dasmo-vismobhag) of his or her income to the sect. The ability to contribute a large amount of cash is both meritorious and prestigious and offers salvation of the highest kind. The above-cited examples and press coverage given to individual entrepreneurs From time to time, the British press has publicised stories of successful Indian businessmen. For instance, on 26 April 1987, The Sunday Times published a profile of Arunbahi Patel and his acquisition of 300 Finlay newsagents under the headline 'Mr Morning Rises Early to Build a British Empire'. In recent years, The Sunday Times has also regularly published lists of the richest men and women in Britain. See Beresford and Boyd's twelfth survey of Britain's richest people (The Sunday Times Rich List 2000 , 19 March 2000, London: Times Newspapers Ltd.). This compilation contains the names of 49 rich Asians (a number of Gujaratis among them) whose wealth is valued at billions of pounds. creates the image of Indians as successful and wealthy people. However it needs to be stressed that not everyone is well off. Semiskilled and unskilled men and women have suffered from long-term unemployment and disadvantage, especially in less prosperous towns in the north-west of England. Donations by wealthy Indians to their sects act as a symbolic leveller in economically divided communities. While perpetuating the value the community places on entrepreneurial success, they ease social tension that is inherent in a process of economic advance in which all do not participate equally. Making money and spending it on religious and social organizations is regarded as a virtue.

With respect to the entry of Indian women in the labour market, the traditional stereotype that Indian women stay at home and bring up children bears little or no relation to reality. Women in all the Indian communities known to the author have some rural or urban work experience. Leva Kanbi Patel women often worked on farms doing arduous manual work in their villages and East African Asian women played a decisive role in running small shops, an experience that they have successfully redeployed in Britain, however unacknowledged it may be. Most importantly, Indian women brought up in the UK have entered a wide range of professional sectors of the labour market. Indian women are still homemakers but they are also active partners in increasing family income, often ensuring that their children receive an education at expensive private schools.

Settlement, Social Conservation and Change

Migration and economic change are key factors in the successful settlement of Swaminarayan sects in Britain. Somewhat paradoxically the dynamic of the movement is lodged in conservation of many Indian social values, which must be shared amongst family and community members for the movement to flourish. This section examines the tensions embedded in a religious movement premised on geographical mobility and economic success, which must retain a core of social values that can be traced back to rural Gujarat.

Members of the sects recognize the positive value of their migration outside India but they continually stress the hard work and group endeavour that allowed them to reach their current economic position. For example the Leva Kanbi Patels trace their origins back to Kutch and their work as kadiya builders. To reinforce their awareness of their origins and the long struggle to their current position in British society, most sects organize special visits to the headquarters of their sect and their own towns and villages in Gujarat. These trips are organized like Hindu pilgrimages to sacred places. The visitors are afforded the opportunity to renew their ties with relatives and to establish their own social presence in their local communities of origin in India. In pursuing such interests, members of the Shree Swaminarayan Siddhanta Sajivan Mandal deposit large amounts of money in banks in their villages to buy land and to build modern, comfortable houses. They also send donations for various village projects like the construction of clinics and schools. Continuity and change mark the kind of institutional organizational framework that the followers of the Swaminarayan sects have created in Britain. In establishing their communities and temples, they have achieved their aim to preserve and sustain their identities as Hindus of the Swaminarayan movement. Their keen commitment to religious salvation is not merely a sectarian matter. It is also partly a consequence of their adaptation to life in Britain. Living in Britain has both positive and negative sides. Although they have new economic opportunities and a better life in Britain, it has also exposed them to social tensions. Unavoidably, many British cultural practices clash with their traditional perspectives.

While South Asians in Britain may face personal and institutional racism imposed on them by the wider society, they also have to contend with internal strains within the movement, and even within families. Growing class differences between Swaminarayan sects constitute a focus for strongly held views as to which sect is the most legitimate expression of the divinity of Swaminarayan. Those who are born and brought up in Britain and have been exposed to a more egalitarian cultural ethic may find that they no longer share the norms of hierarchical esteem embodied in the family and the community. Traditional gender inequality in some Indian castes and sects can be a source of deep unease, especially for young Indian women educated to expect equality but having to cope with strict patrilineal codes of behaviour. The pattern of gender segregation that is traditionally prescribed has come under increasing pressure to give way to more egalitarian norms. Intergenerational tensions erupt when youth defy patrilineal decision making over their education and occupational careers. Higher education for the community's youth tends to be guided towards 'respectable professions'. The unwillingness of young men and women to accept their family traditions of business or work may create serious dislocations between generations.

Generational differences also emerge with regard to the clash of traditional non-egalitarian and youth's egalitarian gender norms. The possibility of acute conflict cannot be avoided on vital issues such as who one should or should not marry. The tradition of endogamy is a source of deep anxiety and tension, especially for young women who come under great pressure to preserve the status quo. In extreme circumstances of inter-generational gender conflict not only does violence lurk in the background but in rare cases a family may even murder a disobedient daughter in order to save its honour. Although Gujarati Hindus are less likely to resort to extreme forms of violence, the author recollects one instance in which a brother killed his sister in a Gujarati Hindu family as she was meeting a boy from outside the community. More recently, The TimesThe Times (London), 26 May 1999. reported the murder of a 19-year-old Muslim girl, Rukhsana. Although she was married, she had a lover who had made her pregnant. The family had suffered such a degree of dishonour in Derby that her brother and her mother killed her and were subsequently jailed for life, clearly illustrating the passion with which some communities regard virginity, sexuality and honour.

Generally, intergenerational conflicts lead to a gradual transformation of traditional norms to accommodate the emergence of less traditional practices or outright rejection of less democratic and authoritarian conventions. In dealing with these intractable issues much is at stake and families and communities feel compelled to minimize alienation that can undermine the family and the community.

The conservation of traditional social values is also challenged by a growing lack of awareness of one's cultural heritage. Pocock (1976) highlighted the problems of sustaining the literary and linguistic inheritance of the movement. The extent to which a knowledge of Gujarati is a necessary precondition for understanding salvation is a moot issue in all Swaminarayan sects. Translating main religious texts into English is an adaptive response to the need of British-born followers and English as the main language of communication among the young is tacitly accepted. However, leaders stress the importance of Gujarati and organize classes that operate with varying degrees of effectiveness (Logan 1989). Looking at sects like the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, leaders believe that transition into English is not necessarily going to result in diminished commitment to the Swaminarayan.

In view of the strong pressures to conform to traditional social values and resulting intergenerational dislocation and alienation, some young men and women may see breaking away from their caste and sectarian communities to lead their own individual lives as an attractive option. During my fieldwork, there was one example of total breakdown in the relationship between a father and his son. The father's violence towards the son eventually brought about intervention by the social services and removal of the child from his home and his eventual unwillingness to associate with his family and the sectarian community. However, it ought to be emphasized that such instances are infrequent. At the same time, it is also equally important to recognize that they occur in circumstances of stress that spark or exacerbate discontinuity between a person, his family and his community.

Youth rebellion and individualist paths are tempered by the external force of racism, and especially the climate of intimidation, harassment and violence that the young face and that causes them to develop a community-based defensive posture. For example, adverse social and political conditions in the East End of London have transformed the youth into a highly militant and political segment of the local Bengali community (Carey and Shukur 1985). Articulated in different ways and to different degrees, the expression of such a political sentiment is increasingly common among the young.


The economic and social history of the Swaminarayan movement and its geographical dispersal over four continents has necessarily been schematic. I have attempted to demonstrate how economic change and social continuity have been accommodated in the movement. The movement has been characterized through time by segmentation on the basis of charismatic patriarchal leadership. It has often thrived in the face of political hostility. Currently the movement faces generational and gender tensions that may challenge the patriarchal leadership of the community and the family. There are still, however, hostile external forces acting on the movement and that provide a counterbalancing need for unity. In this way, the Swaminarayan movement remains intact and flourishes, challenging modernist sociological theory, which conceptualizes social change as a unilineal transition from holistic communities to more particularized communities to self-centred optimizing individuals.

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